Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Human enterovirus causes various clinical manifestations in the form of rashes, febrile illness, flu-like illness, uveitis, hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina, meningitis, and encephalitis. Enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus are significant causes of epidemic HFMD worldwide, especially in children aged from birth to five years old. The enterovirus genotype variants causing HFMD epidemics have been reported increasingly worldwide in the last decade. We aim to use simple and robust molecular tools to investigate human enteroviruses circulating among kindergarten students at genotype and subgenotype levels. With the partial 5'-UTR sequencing analysis as a low-resolution preliminary grouping tool, ten enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus clusters were identified among 18 symptomatic cases and 14 asymptomatic cases in five kindergartens in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2019 and January 2020. Two occurrences of a single clone causing an infection cluster were identified (EV-A71 C1-like subgenotype and coxsackievirus A6). Random amplification-based sequencing using MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technology) helped identify viral transmission between two closely related clones. Diverse genotypes co-circulating among children in kindergartens are reservoirs for new genotype variants emerging, which might be more virulent or better at immune escape. Surveillance of highly contagious enterovirus in communities is essential for disease notifications and controls.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





Department of Tropical Pediatrics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.


Humans, Enterovirus, Enterovirus A, Human, Enterovirus Infections, Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Genotype, Child, Thailand, China