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IntroductionBloodstream infections (BSIs) are a leading cause of sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that significantly contributes to the mortality of bacterial infections. Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin or amikacin are essential medicines in the treatment of BSIs, but their clinical efficacy is increasingly being compromised by antimicrobial resistance. The aminoglycoside apramycin has demonstrated preclinical efficacy against aminoglycoside-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of critical systemic infections.MethodsThis study collected a panel of 470 MDR GNB isolates from healthcare facilities in Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam for a multicentre assessment of their antimicrobial susceptibility to apramycin in comparison with other aminoglycosides and colistin by broth microdilution assays.ResultsApramycin and amikacin MICs ≤ 16 µg/mL were found for 462 (98.3%) and 408 (86.8%) GNB isolates, respectively. Susceptibility to gentamicin and tobramycin (MIC ≤ 4 µg/mL) was significantly lower at 122 (26.0%) and 101 (21.5%) susceptible isolates, respectively. Of note, all carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales, all Acinetobacter baumannii and all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates tested in this study appeared to be susceptible to apramycin. Of the 65 colistin-resistant isolates tested, four (6.2%) had an apramycin MIC > 16 µg/mL.ConclusionApramycin demonstrated best-in-class activity against a panel of GNB isolates with resistances to other aminoglycosides, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins and colistin, warranting continued consideration of apramycin as a drug candidate for the treatment of MDR BSIs.

Original publication




Journal article


International journal of antimicrobial agents

Publication Date





Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.


Gram-Negative Bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Carbapenems, Cephalosporins, Colistin, Aminoglycosides, Gentamicins, Amikacin, Nebramycin, Tobramycin, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Asia, Southeastern, Blood Culture