Effectiveness of Herbal Essential Oils as Single and Combined Repellents against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Sutthanont N., Sudsawang M., Phanpoowong T., Sriwichai P., Ruangsittichai J., Rotejanaprasert C., Srisawat R.
Mosquito repellents reduce human-vector contact of vector-borne diseases. We compared the repellent activity of 10 undiluted essential oils (anise, basil, bergamot, coriander, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, rosemary, sage and vetiver) against A. aegypti, A. dirus and C. quinquefasciatus using the arm-in-cage method. Petitgrain oil was the most effective against A. aegypti (270 min). Peppermint oil was the most effective against A. dirus (180 min). Interestingly, all single oils had attributes of repellency against C. quinquefasciatus (ranged, 120-360 min). Moreover, we integrated their binary combinations of highly effective essential oils against A. aegypti and A. dirus to potentially increase the protection time. A 1:1 combination of petitgrain/basil, petitgrain/coriander, basil/coriander and basil/sage reduced the median complete-protection time of 150 min for A. aegypti; a combination of sage and patchouli oils prolonged the median complete-protection time of 270 min for A. dirus. Combining essential oils effect protection time from these two mosquito species.