Low seroprevalence of COVID-19 in Lao PDR, late 2020.
Virachith S., Pommelet V., Calvez E., Khounvisith V., Sayasone S., Kounnavong S., Maxay M., Xangsayarath P., Temmam S., Eloit M., Escriou N., Rose T., Vongphayloth K., Hübschen JM., Lacoste V., Somlor S., Phonekeo D., Brey PT., Black AP.
BackgroundIn 2020 Lao PDR had low reported COVID-19 cases but it was unclear whether this masked silent transmission. A seroprevalence study was done August - September 2020 to determine SARS-CoV-2 exposure.MethodsParticipants were from the general community (n=2433) or healthcare workers (n=666) in five provinces and bat/wildlife contacts (n=74) were from Vientiane province. ELISAs detected anti- SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (N; n=3173 tested) and Spike (S; n=1417 tested) antibodies. Double-positive samples were checked by IgM/IgG rapid tests. Controls were confirmed COVID-19 cases (n=15) and pre-COVID-19 samples (n=265). Seroprevalence for the general community was weighted to account for complex survey sample design, age and sex.FindingsIn pre-COVID-19 samples, 5·3%, [95% CI=3·1-8·7%] were anti-N antibody single-positive and 1·1% [0·3-3·5%] were anti-S antibody single positive. None were double positive. Anti-N and anti-S antibodies were detected in 5·2% [4·2-6·5%] and 2·1% [1·1-3·9%] of the general community, 2·0% [1·1-3·3%] and 1·4% [0·5-3·7%] of healthcare workers and 20·3% [12·6-31·0%] and 6·8% [2·8-15·3%] of bat/wildlife contacts. 0·1% [0·02-0·3%] were double positive for anti-N and anti-S antibodies (rapid test negative).InterpretationWe find no evidence for significant SARS-CoV-2 circulation in Lao PDR before September 2020. This likely results from early decisive measures taken by the government, social behavior, and low population density. High anti-N /low anti-S seroprevalence in bat/wildlife contacts may indicate exposure to cross-reactive animal coronaviruses with threat of emerging novel viruses.FundingAgence Française de Développement. Additional; Institut Pasteur du Laos, Institute Pasteur, Paris and Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs ("PaReCIDS II").