Impact of efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and nevirapine based antiretroviral regimens on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine and safety of artemether-lumefantrine in falciparum-negative HIV-infected Malawian adults stabilized on antiretroviral therapy.
Banda CG., Dzinjalamala F., Mukaka M., Mallewa J., Maiden V., Terlouw DJ., Lalloo DG., Khoo SH., Mwapasa V.
There is conflicting evidence of the impact of commonly used antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine and safety profile of artemether-lumefantrine. We compared the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-14 days) of lumefantrine and safety profile of artemether-lumefantrine in malaria-negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults in two steps. In step 1, a half-dose adult course of artemether-lumefantrine was administered as a safety check in four groups (n=6/group): (i) antiretroviral-naïve, (ii) on nevirapine-based ART, (iii) on efavirenz-based ART and (iv) on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based ART. In step 2, a standard-dose adult course of artemether-lumefantrine was administered to a different cohort in three groups (n=10-15/group): (i) antiretroviral-naïve, (ii) on efavirenz-based ART and (iii) on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based ART. In step 1, lumefantrine's AUC0-14 days was 53% [95% CI: 0.27-0.82] lower in the efavirenz-based ART group than the ART-naïve group and was 2.4 [95% CI: 1.58-3.62] and 2.9 [95% CI: 1.75-4.72] times higher in the nevirapine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir groups, respectively. In step 2, lumefantrine's AUC0-14 days was 1.9 [95% CI: 1.26-3.00] times higher in the ritonavir-boosted lopinavir group and not significantly different between the efavirenz- and ART-naïve groups (0.99 [95% CI: 0.63-1.57]). Frequent cases of haematological abnormalities (thrombocytopenia and neutropenia) were observed in the nevirapine group in step 1, leading to a recommendation from the data and safety monitoring board not to include a nevirapine group in step 2. Artemether-lumefantrine was well tolerated in the other groups. The therapeutic implications of these findings need to be evaluated among HIV-malaria co-infected adults.