Hydroxyapatite-binding Silver/Titanium Dioxide as a Potential Control Compound Against Mosquito Vectors, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Srisawat R., Sriwichai P., Ruangsittichai J., Rotejanaprasert C., Imaizumi N., Yamaki D., Maekawa M., Eshita Y., Okazaki N.
Controlling mosquitoes is vital for counteracting the rising number of mosquito-borne illnesses. Vector control requires the implementation of various measures; however, current methods lack complete effectiveness, and new control agents or substances are urgently needed. Therefore, this study developed a nonwoven fabric sheet coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide compound (hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide sheet [HATS])and evaluated its effectiveness on all stages of laboratory Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus); Diptera: Culicidae and Anopheles dirus (Peyton & Harrison); Diptera: Culicidae. We reared larvae with HATS and control sheets and assessed their mortality, emergence, and hatching rates. The submersion rates of engorged female mosquitoes in submerged HATS and control sheets were also compared. The HATS strongly affected mosquito development, resulting in high mortality rates (mean ± SE) of 99.66 ± 0.58% (L1-L2) and 91.11 ± 9.20% (L3-L4) for Ae. aegypti and 100% of both stages for An. dirus. In contrast, mosquitoes raised in the control sheet showed relatively high survival rates of 92.33 ± 3.21% (L1-L2) and 95.67 ± 0.58% (L3-L4) for Ae. aegypti and 86.07 ± 3.53% (L1-L2) and 92.01 ± 8.67% (L3-L4) for An. dirus. Submersion of engorged females was found in the HATS oviposition cup, leading to a decreased number of eggs and a low hatching rate compared to that of the control. Overall, HATS may be a useful new control method for Ae. aegypti and An. dirus.