Facilitating Safe Discharge Through Predicting Disease Progression in Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Prospective Cohort Study to Develop and Validate a Clinical Prediction Model in Resource-Limited Settings
Chandna A., Mahajan R., Gautam P., Mwandigha L., Gunasekaran K., Bhusan D., Cheung ATL., Day N., Dittrich S., Dondorp A., Geevar T., Ghattamaneni SR., Hussain S., Jimenez C., Karthikeyan R., Kumar S., Kumar S., Kumar V., Kundu D., Lakshmanan A., Manesh A., Menggred C., Moorthy M., Osborn J., Richard-Greenblatt M., Sharma S., Singh VK., Singh VK., Suri J., Suzuki S., Tubprasert J., Turner P., Villanueva AMG., Waithira N., Kumar P., Varghese GM., Koshiaris C., Lubell Y., Burza S.
Abstract Background In locations where few people have received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, health systems remain vulnerable to surges in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Tools to identify patients suitable for community-based management are urgently needed. Methods We prospectively recruited adults presenting to 2 hospitals in India with moderate symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 to develop and validate a clinical prediction model to rule out progression to supplemental oxygen requirement. The primary outcome was defined as any of the following: SpO2 < 94%; respiratory rate > 30 BPM; SpO2/FiO2 < 400; or death. We specified a priori that each model would contain three clinical parameters (age, sex, and SpO2) and 1 of 7 shortlisted biochemical biomarkers measurable using commercially available rapid tests (C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, interleukin 6 [IL-6], neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], procalcitonin [PCT], soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 [sTREM-1], or soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]), to ensure the models would be suitable for resource-limited settings. We evaluated discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility of the models in a held-out temporal external validation cohort. Results In total, 426 participants were recruited, of whom 89 (21.0%) met the primary outcome; 257 participants comprised the development cohort, and 166 comprised the validation cohort. The 3 models containing NLR, suPAR, or IL-6 demonstrated promising discrimination (c-statistics: 0.72–0.74) and calibration (calibration slopes: 1.01–1.05) in the validation cohort and provided greater utility than a model containing the clinical parameters alone. Conclusions We present 3 clinical prediction models that could help clinicians identify patients with moderate COVID-19 suitable for community-based management. The models are readily implementable and of particular relevance for locations with limited resources.