Prevalence of MDR organism (MDRO) carriage in children and their household members in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia
Singh SR., Mao B., Evdokimov K., Tan P., Leab P., Ong R., Vonthanak S., Tam CC., Hsu LY., Turner P.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>The rising incidence of infections caused by MDR organisms (MDROs) poses a significant public health threat. However, little has been reported regarding community MDRO carriage in low- and middle-income countries.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>We conducted a cross-sectional study in Siem Reap, Cambodia comparing hospital-associated households, in which an index child (age: 2–14 years) had been hospitalized for at least 48 h in the preceding 2–4 weeks, with matched community households on the same street, in which no other child had a recent history of hospitalization. Participants were interviewed using a survey questionnaire and tested for carriage of MRSA, ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) by culture followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing. We used logistic regression analysis to analyse associations between collected variables and MDRO carriage.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>Forty-two pairs of households including 376 participants with 376 nasal swabs and 290 stool specimens were included in final analysis. MRSA was isolated from 26 specimens (6.9%). ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was detected in 269 specimens (92.8%) whereas ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 128 specimens (44.1%), of which 123 (42.4%) were co-colonized with ESBL-producing E. coli. Six (2.1%) specimens tested positive for CPE (4 E. coli and 2 K. pneumoniae). The prevalence ratios for MRSA, ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carriage did not differ significantly in hospital-associated households and hospitalized children compared with their counterparts.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title> <jats:p>The high prevalence of ESBL-E across both household types suggests that MDRO reservoirs are common in the community. Ongoing genomic analyses will help to understand the epidemiology and course of MDRO spread.</jats:p> </jats:sec>