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Establishment of accurate genotype to phenotype maps allows us to explore molecular and antigenic evolution of pathogens in parallel. They also allow for rapid antigenic novelty prediction to be incorporated into molecular surveillance systems. They can help advise updates to vaccines (seasonal flu) and serve as an early warning system for zoonotic pandemics.

Superimposed 2-dimensional antigenic maps generated from predicted antigenic distances (in colour) using a machine learning algorithm to establish an explicit genotype to phenotype map; and from HI titre data (in grey).