A project using drama that engages with village communities in Cambodia, led by Professor Phaik Yeong Cheah of the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit and Nuffield Department of Medicine, has won a Project award in this year’s Vice-Chancellor’s Public Engagement with Research Awards. The project also won the Vice-Chancellor’s Choice Award for Public Engagement with Research.
Posted 14/09/2022. Victor Chaumeau and colleagues evaluated the efficacy of outdoor residual spraying for malaria vector control on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Intervention was showed to rapidly interrupt transmission in a setting where the vectors bite mostly outdoors and at a time when people are not protected by mosquito bed nets.
Posted 14/07/2022. Children bear a substantial burden of TB disease on the Thai-Myanmar border. Treatment success rate exceeded the WHO End TB target of 90%, suggesting that similar vulnerable populations could benefit from the enhanced support of this residential TB program offered by Francois Nosten and colleagues. However better child-friendly diagnostics are needed to improve the detection of TB in children.
Posted 22/06/2022. Mutations on the G6PD and UGT1A1 genes play a large role in neonatal jaundice, including the severe forms, among Karen and Burman neonates. Germana Bancone and colleagues show that improved diagnostics are urgently needed and different screening strategies should be considered in populations with a high prevalence of these traits.
Posted 13/05/2022. “Under the Mask” is a 75-min feature film that follows the lives of patients with TB who live on the Thai-Myanmar border. Phaik Yeong Cheah, Michele Vincenti Delmas and colleagues explains the genesis and development of the film, and how it has been used to engage communities at risk of TB.
Posted 08/03/2022. In this review, Victor Chaumeau and colleagues assessed the level of association between antibody responses to mosquito salivary antigens and the metrics of malaria transmission across different areas of the globe. They identified knowledge gaps that need to be addressed before these serological markers of exposure to vector bites can be used operationally for malaria elimination.
Posted 24/08/2021. Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally. On the Thailand-Myanmar border, 8% of refugee women and 3% of migrant women experienced suicidal thoughts during pregnancy and postnatally. The greatest risk factors for suicidal thoughts were unplanned pregnancy and past trauma. Community interventions and targeted prevention initiatives are urgently needed to help lower the rates of people dying by suicide, by Gracia Fellmeth and colleagues.
Posted 23/06/2021. In an RCT of three artemisinin-based combination therapies in pregnancy on the Thailand-Myanmar border where artemisinin resistance is widespread, only dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine provided satisfactory efficacy for P. falciparum, in this study by Makoto Saito & colleagues. Mefloquine-artesunate provided the longest recurrence-free period for P. vivax. Vivax recurrence was so common, chloroquine prophylaxis is warranted after malaria of any species.
Posted 17/10/2017. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy both increase stillbirth risk, which is likely to increase as endemicity declines. A study by SMRU and University of Melbourne researchers shows that better P. falciparum malaria control efforts could prevent up to 1 in 5 to 8 stillbirths in sub-Saharan Africa.
Posted 17/10/2016. Training local Karen and Burman women as skilled birth attendants in refugee settings resulted in no adverse perinatal outcomes and many positive outcomes such as a drop in stillbirths and infant deaths and more babies being born in clinics rather than at home, says a new study, led by Professor Rose McGready and published in PLOS ONE.
Posted 22/10/2019. Rose McGready and SMRU colleagues contributed RCT data from the Thailand-Myanmar border to this large review on low- and middle-income countries (21 studies in 20 882 children). The results suggests targeting parental, environmental and nutritional factors from pre-pregnancy through childhood, as a way forward to improve health and development of children in such settings.
Posted 21/04/2020. This study by Victor Chaumeau and colleagues was carried out in order to assess the longevity of insecticide mists applied to outdoor vegetation. Insecticidal effect of sprayed plant material against malaria mosquitoes lasted for several weeks. These results provide a strong rationale for using outdoor residual spraying against the mosquito vectors that rest outside premises.
Posted 06/11/20. Victor Chaumeau and colleagues assessed the impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria mosquitoes in four villages in Kayin state, Myanmar. They reported a 10-fold decrease in mosquito biting rate immediately after the intervention and concluded that outdoor residual spraying can be used to control malaria mosquitoes in this area.
Posted 16/03/2021. Many women in Southeast Asia are smaller than their Western counterparts. How might this affect an otherwise healthy pregnancy? A recent study from the Thai-Myanmar border by Sue J Lee, Ahmar Hashmi and colleagues suggests that maternal height should be considered when providing advice regarding weight gain during pregnancy.
Posted 16/07/2019. Worrying nutritional trends in possibly the longest and largest cohort of nearly 50,000 refugee and migrant pregnant women in a LMIC setting. Ahmar Hashmi and colleagues at SMRU summarise trends in under- and over-nutrition among pregnant women, and show a double burden of malnutrition in these marginalised and vulnerable communities from the Myanmar-Thailand border.
Posted 20/12/2019. How do birth outcomes, a mother’s nutrition, and how a mother feeds her infant relate to chronic undernutrition among refugee and migrant infants along the Thailand-Myanmar border? Why do these mothers feed their infants as they do? Come learn more from a recent study by Ahmar Hashmi and colleagues at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit.
Posted 18/05/2021. Rose McGready and colleagues show a strong association between P. falciparum infection and hypertension, in a large prospective cohort of women followed from the first trimester of pregnancy. Falciparum malaria which sequesters in the placenta most likely drives the development of chronic placental hypoxia, eventually progressing to clinical gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. This is important given hypertension is in the top 3 killers of pregnant women and that most pregnancy related hypertensive deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria prevention strategies are not implemented until the beginning of second trimester or later.
Posted 05/05/2021. On the Thailand-Myanmar border, 39% of migrant women and 47% of refugee women experience maternal depression. Gracia Fellmeth and colleagues show that among migrant women, higher levels of social support are associated with lower depression. The perinatal period offers a valuable opportunity to ask women about depression and support networks and offer help to those who need it.
Posted 21/04/2021. Tobias Brummaier and colleagues report a high burden of soil-transmitted helminth infections and an association with maternal anaemia in pregnant migrant and refugee women on the Thai-Myanmar border. Whether the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection against miscarriage observed in this retrospective dataset results from helminth immune modulation remains to be determined.
Posted 14/04/2021. Germana Bancone and Cindy Chu review the current knowledge about drug-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency, and discuss new clinical and laboratory approaches to understand haemolytic risk in G6PD variants. A more comprehensive genotypic and phenotypic characterization, together with haematologic responses upon exposure to different drugs, will help define a clinically useful classification of G6PD variants
Posted 26/03/2021. Ketamine is an essential drug widely used in low-resource settings, but there was no data on its safety in lactating women until this report. In this study by Mary Ellen Gilder and SMRU colleagues, outcomes for breastfeeding infants whose mothers received ketamine are good, and not affected by ketamine dose. In contrast, high dose maternal intravenous diazepam may be harmful.
Giving people antimalarials during and after visiting the forest reduced their risk of contracting malaria 6-fold, and could be the missing piece towards eliminating malaria in Asia-Pacific and South America, say Mahidol and Oxford University researchers in a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
The joint MORU and IDDO Study to review global COVID-19 therapeutics guidelines, led by PIs Cintia V. Cruz, Mia Cokljat and Philippe Guérin, is examining current national COVID-19 treatment recommendations to investigate the level of variation and whether they are consistent with WHO guidelines for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
MORU’s Medicine Quality Research Group (MQRG) organised a multidisciplinary hybrid meeting at Keble College, Oxford, 3-6 July for the Wellcome Collaborative Award-funded FORESFA project (‘Forensic epidemiology and impact of substandard and falsified antimicrobials on public health’).
Patients affected by COVID-19 should be treated according to the severity of their disease. However, not all key national or international organisations define severity in the same way. This imprecision in severity assessment compromises the validity of some therapeutic recommendations. Using individual patient data would better guide and improve therapeutic recommendations for COVID-19.