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Using a metabolomics approach, we identified several organic acids associated with severe malaria. The relationship between plasma acids, urine acids and renal function was investigated in adult patients with severe malaria, patients with uncomplicated malaria, patients with non-malaria sepsis, and healthy volunteers (Malar J. 2018;17(1):128). Both plasma and urine concentrations of p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid were closely correlated with acute kidney injury in patients with severe falciparum malaria.

In a separate study, the renoprotective effects of acetaminophen were evaluated in patients with severe and moderately severe falciparum malaria in a randomised, controlled, open-label trial (Future Sci OA. 2018;4(8):FSO331 & Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(7):991-9. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis showed that higher exposure to acetaminophen increased the probability of creatinine improvement, and therefore, a renoprotective effect of acetaminophen.