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The global burden of malaria remains high, with 216 million cases causing 445,000 deaths in 2016 despite first-line treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Decreasing transmission in Africa shifts the risk for severe malaria to older age groups as premunition wanes. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with intravenous artesunate in addition to appropriate supportive management are critical to reduce deaths from severe malaria. Effective individual management is challenging in settings with limited resources for higher-level care. Adjunctive therapies targeting the underlying pathophysiological pathways have the potential to reduce mortality. Resistance to artemisinin derivatives and their partner drugs threaten malaria management and control.

Original publication




Journal article


Infectious disease clinics of North America

Publication Date





39 - 60


Malaria Department, Mahidol Oxford Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 3/F 60th, Anniversary Chalermprakiat Building, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, 452D Heather Pavilion East, 2733 Heather Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 3J5, Canada.


Humans, Plasmodium, Malaria, Antimalarials, Drug Therapy, Combination, Drug Resistance, Disease Management