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From 2003 through 2009, 687 of 2885 patients (23.8%) treated for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in clinical studies in Myanmar or on the Thailand-Myanmar border had recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria within 63 days, compared with 18 of 429 patients (4.2%) from 2010 onward (risk ratio [RR], 0.176; 95% confidence interval, .112-.278; P < .0001). Corresponding data from 42 days of follow-up revealed that 820 of 3883 patients (21.1%) had recurrent P. vivax malaria before 2010, compared with 22 of 886 (2.5%) from 2010 onward (RR, 0.117; 95% CI, .077-.177; P < .0001). This 6-fold reduction suggests a recent decline in P. vivax transmission intensity and, thus, a substantial reduction in the proportion of individuals harboring hypnozoites.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





100 - 104


Myanmar Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Myanmar.