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Serum biomarkers and lung ultrasound are important measures for prognostication and treatment allocation in patients with COVID-19. Currently, there is a paucity of studies investigating relationships between serum biomarkers and ultrasonographic biomarkers derived from lung ultrasound. This study aims to assess correlations between serum biomarkers and lung ultrasound findings. This study is a secondary analysis of four prospective observational studies in adult patients with COVID-19. Serum biomarkers included markers of epithelial injury, endothelial dysfunction and immune activation. The primary outcome was the correlation between biomarker concentrations and lung ultrasound score assessed with Pearson's (r) or Spearman's (rs) correlations. Forty-four patients (67 [41-88] years old, 25% female, 52% ICU patients) were included. GAS6 (rs = 0.39), CRP (rs = 0.42) and SP-D (rs = 0.36) were correlated with lung ultrasound scores. ANG-1 (rs = -0.39) was inversely correlated with lung ultrasound scores. No correlations were found between lung ultrasound score and several other serum biomarkers. In patients with COVID-19, several serum biomarkers of epithelial injury, endothelial dysfunction and immune activation correlated with lung ultrasound findings. The lack of correlations with certain biomarkers could offer opportunities for precise prognostication and targeted therapeutic interventions by integrating these unlinked biomarkers.

Original publication




Journal article


Diagnostics (Basel)

Publication Date





COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, endothelial dysfunction, epithelial injury, immune activation, lung, respiratory failure, ultrasonography