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ObjectivesTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course intravenous amphotericin B followed by sustained release posaconazole tablets for diabetes or COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis.MethodsThis prospective, pragmatic study included adults with diabetes or COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Patients received short (7-14 days) or long (15-28 days) intravenous antifungal therapy (short intravenous antifungal treatment [SHIFT] or long intravenous antifungal treatment [LIFT], respectively) depending on the presence or absence of brain involvement. All patients received step-down posaconazole tablets, debridement, and glycemic control. The primary outcome was the treatment success at week 14, which was determined by assessing survival and the absence of disease progression through clinical evaluation and nasal endoscopy. Log-binomial regression analysis (risk ratio and 95% CI) was performed to assess factors associated with the primary outcome.ResultsIntravenous therapy was administered to 251 participants: SHIFT, 205 (median duration, 13 days); LIFT, 46 (median duration, 22 days). Treatment success at 3 months was 88% (217/248; 95% CI, 83-91%): SHIFT group, 93% (189/203; 89-96%); LIFT group, 62% (28/45; 47-76%). All-cause mortality was 12% (30/251): SHIFT group, 6% (13/205); LIFT group, 37% (17/46). Age (aRR [95% CI]: 1.02 [1.00-1.05]; p 0.027), diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (2.32 [1.20-4.46]; p 0·012), glycated haemoglobin A1c (1.19 [1.03-1.39]; p 0.019), stroke (3.93 [1.94-7.95]; p 0·0001), and brain involvement (5.67 [3.05-10.54]; p DiscussionShort intravenous amphotericin B with step-down posaconazole tablets should be further studied as primary treatment option for diabetes or COVID-19-associated mucormycosis in randomized controlled trials.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Publication Date



Department of Infectious Diseases, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.