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We report on the collection ofimmatures of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) epactius Dyar & Knab from artificial containers during July through September 2011 in 12 communities located along an elevation and climate gradient extending from sea level in Veracruz State to high elevations (>2,000 m) in Veracruz and Puebla States, México. Ae. epactius was collected from 11 of the 12 study communities; the lone exception was the highest elevation community along the transect (>2,400 m). This mosquito species was thus encountered at elevations ranging from near sea level in Veracruz City on the Gulf of México to above 2,100 m in Puebla City in the central highlands. Collection sites included the city of C6rdoba, located at approximately 850 m, from which some of the first described specimens of Ae. epactius were collected in 1908. Estimates for percentage of premises in each community with Ae. epactius pupae present, and abundance of Ae. epactius pupae on the study premises, suggest that along the transect in central México, the mosquito is present but rare at sea level, most abundant at mid-range elevations from 1,250-1,750 m and then decreases in abundance above 1,800 m. Statistically significant parabolic relationships were found between percentage of premises with Ae. epactius pupae present and average minimum daily temperature, cumulative growing degree-days, and rainfall. We recorded Ae. epactius immatures from a wide range of container types including cement water tanks, barrels/ drums, tires, large earthen jars, small discarded containers, buckets, cement water troughs, flower pots, cement water cisterns, and larger discarded containers. There were 45 documented instances of co-occurrence of Ae. epactius and Aedes aegypti (L.) immatures in individual containers.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of medical entomology

Publication Date





1244 - 1253


Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 80523, USA.


Animals, Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Altitude, Climate, Population Density, Geography, Mexico, Female, Male