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People can become infected with cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) through skin penetration by the infective zoonotic larvae of hookworms. Few studies have investigated CLM's immunodiagnosis, and the existing studies were limited to crude somatic or excretory/secretory antigens (Ags) from adult worms. Here, we aimed to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to differentiate and diagnose hwCLM by detecting immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG, and IgG subclasses 1-4 (IgG1-4) against the somatic Ag of adult Ancylostoma caninum checkerboard titrations of adult A. caninum worm extract. Pooled serum controls were immunocharacterized using an indirect ELISA. The IgG1-4 and IgE results were unsatisfactory; however, the use of total IgG achieved results comparable to those of immunoblotting. Thus, we continued to analyze the IgG-ELISA using serum samples from patients with hwCLM and heterologous infections as well as from healthy controls. The sensitivity and excellent specificity of the total IgG-ELISA were 93.75% and 98.37%, respectively, and its positive and negative predictive values were 75% and 99.67%, respectively. Antibodies from five cases of angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, and dirofilariasis cross-reacted with the somatic Ag of adult A. caninum. This new assay can adequately serodiagnose hwCLM when combined with clinical features and/or histological examination.

Original publication




Journal article


Tropical medicine and infectious disease

Publication Date





Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.