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ABSTRACT Background Compared with ice-based vaccine carriers (IBVCs), iceless vaccine carrier (ILVC) last-mile delivery could optimize vaccine effectiveness by reducing spoilage. We estimated ILVC-associated spoilage costs averted and cost effectiveness. Methods IBVC vaccine spoilage costs were estimated for six vaccines. ILVC incremental costs were based on yearly ILVC cost over total doses. Cost effectiveness was estimated via Markov modeling of rotavirus vaccine. Results The spoilage cost using IBVCs was US$9 603 294. Using ILVCs, the incremental cost per vaccine dose was US$0.026, the cost-benefit ratio was 0.28, the number of averted disability-adjusted life years was 0.03 per child and there was a saving of US$0.80 per child vaccinated. Conclusions ILVCs may bring cost savings and health gains compared with IBVCs.

Original publication




Journal article


Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date





310 - 312