Association Between an Increase in Serum Sodium and In-Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients.
Grim CCA., Termorshuizen F., Bosman RJ., Cremer OL., Meinders AJ., Nijsten MWN., Pickkers P., de Man AME., Schultz MJ., van Vliet P., Weigel JD., Helmerhorst HJF., de Keizer NF., de Jonge E.
ObjectivesIn critically ill patients, dysnatremia is common, and in these patients, in-hospital mortality is higher. It remains unknown whether changes of serum sodium after ICU admission affect mortality, especially whether normalization of mild hyponatremia improves survival.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingTen Dutch ICUs between January 2011 and April 2017.PatientsAdult patients were included if at least one serum sodium measurement within 24 hours of ICU admission and at least one serum sodium measurement 24-48 hours after ICU admission were available.InterventionsNone.Measurements and main resultsA logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV-predicted mortality was used to assess the difference between mean of sodium measurements 24-48 hours after ICU admission and first serum sodium measurement at ICU admission (Δ48 hr-[Na]) and in-hospital mortality. In total, 36,660 patients were included for analysis. An increase in serum sodium was independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with normonatremia (Δ48 hr-[Na] 5-10 mmol/L odds ratio: 1.61 [1.44-1.79], Δ48 hr-[Na] > 10 mmol/L odds ratio: 4.10 [3.20-5.24]) and hypernatremia (Δ48 hr-[Na] 5-10 mmol/L odds ratio: 1.47 [1.02-2.14], Δ48 hr-[Na] > 10 mmol/L odds ratio: 8.46 [3.31-21.64]). In patients admitted with mild hyponatremia and Δ48 hr-[Na] greater than 5 mmol/L, no significant difference in hospital mortality was found (odds ratio, 1.11 [0.99-1.25]).ConclusionsAn increase in serum sodium in the first 48 hours of ICU admission was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with normonatremia and in patients admitted with hypernatremia.