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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health challenge for Thailand (current prevalence ~10.0%). Amino acids offer novel biomarkers to predict risk of T2DM and indicate sub-optimal disease management, which could facilitate earlier treatment. We studied amino acid profiles in a Thai cohort comprising of individuals with T2DM (n = 65 single-drug-treated; n = 38 multi-drug-treated) compared to healthy controls (n = 104) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Age and BMI were significantly lower in the healthy controls compared to the single or multi-treated T2DM groups. The BCAA (leucine and valine) were significantly lower in the single and multi-treated T2DM groups compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) and isoleucine was significantly lower in the single-treated compared to the healthy controls (p = 0.014). These findings beg the question whether BCAAs supplementation be beneficial in T2DM patients treated with single or multi-drug therapy? Tyrosine was significantly lower in the single and multi-treated T2DM groups compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002), whereas phenylalanine was significantly higher in the multi-treated T2DM group compared to the single treated T2DM group (p = 0.045). We provide novel insights into the effects of diabetes treatments on these amino acids in insulin resistant states such as T2DM in a unique but understudied Thai population.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of clinical medicine

Publication Date





Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.