Genetic Diversity of Dengue Virus in Clinical Specimens from Bangkok, Thailand, during 2018-2020: Co-Circulation of All Four Serotypes with Multiple Genotypes and/or Clades.
Poltep K., Phadungsombat J., Nakayama EE., Kosoltanapiwat N., Hanboonkunupakarn B., Wiriyarat W., Shioda T., Leaungwutiwong P.
Dengue is an arboviral disease highly endemic in Bangkok, Thailand. To characterize the current genetic diversity of dengue virus (DENV), we recruited patients with suspected DENV infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, during 2018-2020. We determined complete nucleotide sequences of the DENV envelope region for 111 of 276 participant serum samples. All four DENV serotypes were detected, with the highest proportion being DENV-1. Although all DENV-1 sequences were genotype I, our DENV-1 sequences were divided into four distinct clades with different distributions in Asian countries. Two genotypes of DENV-2 were identified, Asian I and Cosmopolitan, which were further divided into two and three distinct clades, respectively. In DENV-3, in addition to the previously dominant genotype III, a cluster of 6 genotype I viruses only rarely reported in Thailand was also observed. All of the DENV-4 viruses belonged to genotype I, but they were separated into three distinct clades. These results indicated that all four serotypes of DENV with multiple genotypes and/or clades co-circulate in Bangkok. Continuous investigation of DENV is warranted to further determine the relationship between DENV within Thailand and neighboring countries in Southeast Asia and Asia.