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PurposeSepsis is the most frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The "Acute Disease Quality Initiative Workgroup" recently proposed new definitions for AKI, classifying it as transient or persistent. We investigated the incidence, mortality, and host response aberrations associated with transient and persistent AKI in sepsis patients.MethodsA total of 1545 patients admitted with sepsis to 2 intensive care units in the Netherlands were stratified according to the presence (defined by any urine or creatinine RIFLE criterion within the first 48 h) and evolution of AKI (with persistent defined as remaining > 48 h). We determined 30-day mortality by logistic regression adjusting for confounding variables and analyzed 16 plasma biomarkers reflecting pathways involved in sepsis pathogenesis (n = 866) and blood leukocyte transcriptomes (n = 392).ResultsAKI occurred in 37.7% of patients, of which 18.4% was transient and 81.6% persistent. On admission, patients with persistent AKI had higher disease severity scores and more frequently had severe (injury or failure) RIFLE AKI stages than transient AKI patients. Persistent AKI, but not transient AKI, was associated with increased mortality by day 30 and up to 1 year. Persistent AKI was associated with enhanced and sustained inflammatory and procoagulant responses during the first 4 days, and a more severe loss of vascular integrity compared with transient AKI. Baseline blood gene expression showed minimal differences with respect to the presence or evolution of AKI.ConclusionPersistent AKI is independently associated with sepsis mortality, as well as with sustained inflammatory and procoagulant responses, and loss of vascular integrity as compared with transient AKI.

Original publication




Journal article


Intensive care medicine

Publication Date





1576 - 1589


Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Room G2-130; Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


MARS consortium, Humans, Sepsis, Critical Illness, Prospective Studies, Intensive Care Units, Netherlands, Acute Kidney Injury