Lipid profile of Trichinella papuae muscle-stage larvae.
Mangmee S., Adisakwattana P., Tipthara P., Simanon N., Sonthayanon P., Reamtong O.
Outbreaks of trichinellosis caused by Trichinella papuae have been reported in South-East Asia. Mebendazole and thiabendazole are the treatments of choice for trichinellosis; however, both drugs result in significant side effects and are less effective for muscle-stage larvae (L1). An alternative therapeutic agent is needed to improve treatment. Information on lipid composition and metabolic pathways may bridge gaps in our knowledge and lead to new antiparasitics. The T. papuae L1 lipidome was analysed using a mass spectrometry-based approach, and 403 lipid components were identified. Eight lipid classes were found and glycerophospholipids were dominant, corresponding to 63% of total lipids, of which the glycerolipid DG (20:1[11Z]/22:4[7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z]/0:0) (iso2) was the most abundant. Overall, 57% of T. papuae lipids were absent in humans; therefore, lipid metabolism may be dissimilar in the two species. Proteins involved T. papuae lipid metabolism were explored using bioinformatics. We found that 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase, uncharacterized protein (A0A0V1MCB5) and ML-domain-containing protein are not present in humans. T. papuae glycerophospholipid metabolic and phosphatidylinositol dephosphorylation processes contain several proteins that are dissimilar to those in humans. These findings provide insights into T. papuae lipid composition and metabolism, which may facilitate the development of novel trichinellosis treatments.