Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

IntroductionExtended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) among Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli (E. coli), in Nepal, have been rising. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of uropathogenic E. coli, antibiotic resistance, ESBLs, ABLs (AmpC type β-lactamases), MBLs (metallo-β-lactamases) and KPCs (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases) and their correlation with plasmid profiling patterns among patients with urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.MethodsThe mid-stream urine samples collected from patients were inoculated in cystine-lactose-electrolyte-deficient (CLED) agar plates. E. coli producing ESBLs, ABLs, MBLs/KPC were identified phenotypically using standard microbiological methods. Plasmids were extracted by alkaline lysis method from E. coli isolates and profiled using agarose gel electrophoresis.ResultsOut of the total 2661 urine samples, E. coli were isolated in 64.34% (507/788), among which 170 (33.53%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. All MDR isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and third-generation cephalosporins but were highly sensitive to imipenem (94.12%, 160/170), amikacin (92.94%, 158/170) and nitrofurantoin (86.47%, 147/170). Among 170 MDR isolates, 78.2% (133/170) were ESBLs, 46.3% (50/170) were AmpC, 11.2% (19/170) were MBL and 0.6% (1/170) were KPC producers. Coproduction of β-lactamases was detected in 24.12% (41/170) of isolates. E. coli isolates showed one plasmid (>33.5 kb), which was present in all the isolates. Overall, 44 different plasmid profile groups were identified based on molecular weight and number of plasmids. β-Lactamase producers were relatively resistant to the higher number of antibiotics tested (≤10) than non-producers (≤8), and the number of plasmids were higher in β-lactamase producers (≤7) than those in non-producers (≤5).ConclusionThe higher prevalence of the ESBLs, AmpCs, KPCs and MBLs along with their coproduction in E. coli isolates highlights the importance of routine surveillance of ESBLs, AmpCs, KPCs and MBLs in microbiology laboratories using various phenotypic methods.

Original publication




Journal article


Infection and drug resistance

Publication Date





1905 - 1917


Kantipur College of Medical Science, Tribhuvan University, Sitapaila, Kathmandu, Nepal.