Trend and Characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Patients Attending Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Western Nepal: A Longitudinal Study of 2018.
Raut S., Rijal KR., Khatiwada S., Karna S., Khanal R., Adhikari J., Adhikari B.
BackgroundAcinetobacter baumannii is one of the major organisms causing nosocomial infections and is intrinsically resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to investigate the trend and characteristics of A. baumannii infections including its resistance pattern among patients attending Universal College of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital (UCMSTH) in Western Nepal, between January and December 2018.Patients and methodsA total of 4862 clinical samples received at the microbiology laboratory of UCMSTH over a period of a year were analyzed. Following bacterial culture on the samples, culture-positive isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using a modified Kirby-Bauer method. The demographic profile of the patient, information about samples, and the antibiotic profile of the A. baumannii isolated from different samples were recorded and analyzed.ResultsA total of 1180 (24.2%; 1180/4862) organisms were isolated from the total samples. Acinetobacter baumannii (12.4%; 147/1180) was the third most common organism. Prevalence of A. baumannii was found to be high in late summer/early winter (July: 15.9%; 18/113 and December: 18.8%; 13/69). The majority 71.4% (n=105) of A. baumannii isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). None of the isolate was pan-drug resistant. Colistin, polymyxin B, and tigecycline were 100% sensitive to A. baumannii. MDR bacteria were significantly associated with the gender of the patients [female: 51.4% (54/105) versus male: 48.6% (51/105); p=0.05], clinical specimens [swab: 40% (42/105) sputum: 21.9% (23/105) and urine: 10.5% (11/105); p=0.02] and different wards of the hospital [surgery: 30.5% (32/105); ICU: 21.9% (23/105) and medicine: 19.0% (20/105); p< 0.03].ConclusionThe high burden of MDR Acinetobacter isolates in clinical specimens shows an alarming presence of antimicrobial resistance. Two-thirds of the specimens showed MDR and were associated with demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. In the management of infectious diseases at UCMSTH, there should be a high suspicion of Acinetobacter infection, and isolation and treatment should be carried out based on an antibiotic susceptibility test.