Assessments of pharmacokinetic drug interactions and tolerability of albendazole, praziquantel and ivermectin combinations.
Na-Bangchang K., Kietinun S., Pawa KK., Hanpitakpong W., Na-Bangchang C., Lazdins J.
The pharmacokinetic interactions and tolerability of albendazole, praziquantel and ivermectin combinations were assessed in 23 healthy Thai volunteers (12 males and 11 females). The study was an open, randomised, three-way crossover design in which each subject attended the study on three separate occasions (Phases I, II and III), of 4 d or 8 d each, with at least 1 or 2 weeks (but not longer than 2 months) between each phase. All subjects received the three study drug regimens as follows: regimen I, oral praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight); regimen II, oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg body weight) given concurrently with an oral dose of albendazole (400 mg); and regimen III, oral ivermectin given concurrently with albendazole and praziquantel. All treatment regimens showed acceptable tolerability profiles. The incidence of overall drug-related adverse events was significantly higher following regimens I (12/23) and III (7/23) compared with that following regimen II (0/23). Six statistically significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of albendazole sulphoxide (Cmax, AUC0-infinity, Vz/F, CL/F), praziquantel (Vz/F) and ivermectin (AUC0-infinity) were observed when the three drugs were given concurrently. However, based on US Food and Drug Administration criteria, these changes were not considered of clinical relevance.