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Baseline entomological surveys were conducted in four sentinel sites along the Thailand-Myanmar border to address vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the context of a study on malaria elimination. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human-landing catch and cow-bait collection in four villages during the rainy season from May-June, 2013. Mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characters and by AS-PCR. Sporozoite indexes were determined on head/thoraces of primary and secondary malaria vectors using real-time PCR. A total of 4,301 anopheles belonging to 12 anopheline taxa were identified. Anopheles minimus represented >98% of the Minimus Complex members (n=1,683), whereas the An. maculatus group was composed of two dominant species, An. sawadwongporni and An. maculatus. Overall, 25 Plasmodium-positive mosquitoes (of 2,323) were found, representing a sporozoite index of 1.1% [95%CI 0.66-1.50]. The transmission intensity as measured by the EIR strongly varied according to the village (ANOVA, F=17.67, df=3, P<0.0001). Our findings highlight the diversity and complexity of the biting pattern of malaria vectors along the Thailand-Myanmar border that represent a formidable challenge for malaria control and elimination.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of vector ecology : journal of the Society for Vector Ecology

Publication Date





84 - 93


Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.


Animals, Cattle, Humans, Anopheles, Plasmodium, Malaria, Myanmar, Thailand, Female, Mosquito Vectors