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<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Melioidosis is difficult to diagnose clinically and culture of Burkholderia pseudomallei is the current, imperfect gold standard. However, a reliable point-of-care test (POCT) could enable earlier treatment and improve outcomes.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Active Melioidosis Detect™ (AMD) rapid test as a POCT and determined how much it reduced the time to diagnosis compared with culture.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>We tested 106 whole blood, plasma and buffy coat samples, 96 urine, 28 sputum and 20 pus samples from 112 patients, of whom 26 (23.2%) were culture-positive for B. pseudomallei. AMD sensitivity and specificity were 65.4 and 87.2%, respectively, the latter related to 10 weak positive reactions on urine samples, considered likely false positives. The positive predictive value was 60.7%, negative predictive value was 89.3% and concordance rate between operators reading the test was 95.7%; time to diagnosis decreased by a median of 23 h.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title> <jats:p>Our findings confirm that a strongly positive AMD result can reduce the time to diagnosis of melioidosis. However, the AMD currently has a disappointing overall sensitivity, especially with blood fractions, and specificity problems when testing urine samples.</jats:p> </jats:sec>

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/trstmh/trz092

Type

Journal article

Journal

Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date

22/10/2019