A comparison of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of quinine and quinidine in healthy Thai males.
Karbwang J., Davis TM., Looareesuwan S., Molunto P., Bunnag D., White NJ.
1. Eight healthy Thai males, aged 19-27 years, received quinine or quinidine dihydrochloride 10 mg kg-1 body weight by intravenous infusion over 1 h. At least 1 week later, the alternative alkaloid was administered. 2. The terminal elimination half-time of quinidine was shorter than that of quinine (median [range]; 5.7 [5.0-10.0] vs 9.9 [8.8-15.1] h, P < 0.01), the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) for quinidine was larger than that for quinine (3.5 [2.5-5.6] vs 3.1 [1.8-4.1] 1 kg-1; P = 0.02) and quinidine was less bound to plasma proteins (% free drug: 22.8 [15.4-47.2] vs 9.4 [7.3-15.0]%, P < 0.01). Total clearance was greater for quinidine (7.7 [3.9-11.4] vs 3.4 [1.8-4.6] ml min-1 kg-1, P < 0.01) but not for clearance of unbound drug (32.2 [14.6-50.4] vs 29.9 [20.2-50.9] ml min-1 kg-1 respectively, P > 0.2). 3. Side-effects, including transient hypotension after quinidine in two cases, were mild. 4. Both drugs produced prolongation of the rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), with similar rates of elimination from the cardiac conduction 'effect' compartment (keo; 4.14 [0.03-15.33] h-1 for quinine, 3.74 [1.63-13.14] h-1 for quinidine, P > 0.19). Using a linear concentration-response model, the intercept ('threshold') for quinidine effect was lower than that for quinine (P = 0.004) but the slopes (change in QTc for a given change in free drug concentration) were similar (P = 0.56).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)