Leptospirosis is a zoonotic and waterborne disease worldwide. It is a neglected infectious disease caused by Leptospira spp., as well as a reemerging disease and global public health problem with respect to morbidity and mortality both in humans and animals. Leptospirosis emerges as a leading cause of acute febrile illness along with hepatorenal injury in many countries, including Thailand. While most affected persons are symptomatic in acute disease, which is always difficult to differentiate from other tropical diseases, there is growing evidence of subtle manifestations that cause unrecognized chronic symptoms. The kidney is one of the common organs affected by Leptospires. Although acute kidney injury in the spectrum of interstitial nephritis is a well-described characteristic in severe leptospirosis, chronic kidney disease from leptospirosis is widely discussed. Early recognition of severe leptospirosis leads to reduce morbidity and mortality. Thus, in this review, we highlight the spectrum of characteristics involved in leptospirosis kidney disease and the use of serologic and molecular methods, as well as the treatments of severe leptospirosis.
acute kidney injury, immune response, interstitial nephritis, leptospirosis