Phylogenetic analysis of Trichostrongylus vitrinus isolates from southwest Iran.
Ghatee MA., Malek Hosseini SAA., Marashifard M., Karamian M., Taylor WR., Jamshidi A., Mobedi I., Azarmehr H.
BackgroundTrichostrongylus is one of the most important zoonotic trichostrongylid nematodes, infecting mostly livestock. Data on its genetic characteristics are lacking in Iran.MethodsWe determined the phylogenetic relationships of Trichostrongylus species in three counties of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad (K-B) province, southwest Iran. Small intestine and abomasum of 70 sheep and goats were investigated.ResultsA total of 35 isolates of Trichostrongylus worms were detected and all were genetically identified as Trichostrongylus vitrinus. Analysis of 321 bp of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA revealed 16 genotypes. All genotypes were single nucleotide polymorphisms, including some hypervariable points. All sequences were trimmed to 170 bp, compared with sequences on GenBank including short sequences from other endemic foci of Iran and other countries and all isolates were used to generate a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree, which consisted of two clades A and B. Clade A included isolates from Iran, Russia, New Zealand, Australia and the UK; clade B only contained South African isolates. Most clade A isolates (north, southwest and west Iran, Russia, New Zealand, Australia and UK) were in a similar phylogenetic position. One subclade was detected in clade A (isolates from Southwest Iran, New Zealand and UK).ConclusionsWe hypothesize that drug resistant T. vitrinus may account for its exclusive detection in our samples. The high similarity of genotypes from Iran, New Zealand and UK may be due to their close political relationships during the colonial era. More research is needed to understand better the phylogeny of T. vitrinus and its relationship with drug resistance and human transmission.