Epidemiological, and Clinical Characteristics of International Travelers with Enteric Fever and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of their Isolates: A GeoSentinel Analysis.
Hagmann SHF., Angelo KM., Huits R., Plewes K., Eperon G., Grobusch MP., McCarthy A., Libman M., Caumes E., Leung DT., Asgeirsson H., Jensenius M., Schwartz E., Sánchez-Montalvá A., Kelly P., Pandey P., Leder K., Bourque DL., Yoshimura Y., Mockenhaupt FP., van Genderen PJJ., Odolini S., Schlagenhauf P., Connor BA., Hamer DH.
Background. Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi), is a common travel-related illness. Limited data are available on their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns among travelers. Methods. Records with a culture-confirmed diagnosis seen during or after travel from January 2007 to December 2018 were obtained from GeoSentinel. Traveler demographics and antimicrobial susceptibility data were analyzed. Isolates were classified as 'non-susceptible' if intermediate or resistant, or 'susceptible' in accordance with participating site's national guidelines. Results. A total of 889 travelers (S. Typhi, n=474; S. Paratyphi, n=414; co-infection, n=1) were included; 114 (13%) were children <18 years. Most (41%) traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) and acquired the infection in South Asia (71%). Child travelers with S. Typhi were most frequently VFRs (77%). The median trip duration was 31 days (interquartile range: 18-61 days) and 448 of 691 (65%) had no pre-travel consultation. Of 143 S. Typhi and 75 S. Paratyphi isolates with susceptibility data, non-susceptibility to antibiotics varied (fluoroquinolones: 65% vs 56% respectively; cotrimoxazole: 13% vs 0%; macrolides: 8% vs 16%). Two S. Typhi isolates (1.5%) from India were non-susceptible to 3rd-generation cephalosporins. S. Typhi fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was highest when infection was acquired in South Asia (70 of 90; 78%) and sub-Saharan Africa (6 of 10; 60%). Conclusions. Enteric fever is an important travel-associated illness complicated by AMR. Our data contributes to a better understanding of region-specific AMR helping inform empirical treatment options. Prevention measures need to focus on high-risk travelers including VFRs and children.