Characteristics and associated factors of acute kidney injury among adult dengue patients: A retrospective single-center study.
Diptyanusa A., Phumratanaprapin W., Phonrat B., Poovorawan K., Hanboonkunupakarn B., Sriboonvorakul N., Thisyakorn U.
Severe dengue cases have been increasingly reported in Thailand, and the under-reporting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cases of dengue viral infection has become an obstacle in obtaining an accurate description of the true nature and epidemiology of AKI. Because AKI may lead to patient morbidity and mortality, an early diagnosis is important in preventing its onset in dengue patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and associated factors of AKI among adult dengue patients. This retrospective study reviewed admission data from the medical records of adult dengue patients admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases between January 2012 and November 2017 and stratified these patients into AKI and non-AKI groups using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria (KDIGO). A total of 1,484 patients were included in the study, with 71 categorized into the AKI group. The prevalence of AKI was 4.8%. In the AKI group, the predominant age range was 18-40 years (71.8%), with a female to male ratio of 1:2.7. These patients showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportions of altered consciousness, dyspnea, low mean arterial blood pressure, high-grade fever, major bleeding, severe thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, severe transaminitis, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria. Our study established that older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, severe dengue, and coexisting bacterial infection were significant associated factors for AKI in dengue by multivariate analysis. A total of 10 (14.1%) patients with AKI received dialysis, among which 9 (12.7%) patients from the AKI group died. Our findings suggest that an awareness of AKI, its early diagnosis, and evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of dengue patients will help clinicians to initiate appropriate therapy for dengue-associated AKI.