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BackgroundMultidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to both Isoniazid and Rifampicin with or without resistant to other drug, is among the most alarming pandemic problem. The objectives of this study was to assess the risk factors of MDR TB in Central Nepal.MethodsA matched case control study was conducted among 186 cases of MDR TB and 372 non-MDR TB controls from central region of Nepal. Pretested questionnaires containing socio-economic, cultural & behavioral; environmental, biological and health service factors were used. Variables significant in bivariate analysis were entered in multiple regression models for further analysis.ResultsAfter adjusting for confounders, previous smoking habit (aOR= 4.5,(95%CI(1.24-16.2)) (p=0.04), and perceived social discrimination (aOR=5.83,95%CI (1.77-19.71)) (P=0.021) independently predicted greater MDR TB risk.ConclusionsEncouraging MDR TB cases for smoking cessation through awareness activities should be a priority. Stigma reduction programs should include the empowerment of patients and communities while promoting TBrelated research for further exploration into the risk factors of TB and associated stigma.


Journal article


Journal of Nepal Health Research Council

Publication Date





95 - 101


Department of Community Medicine, Manmohan Memorial Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.


Humans, Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant, Risk Factors, Case-Control Studies, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Smoking, Health Behavior, Environment, Comorbidity, Residence Characteristics, Culture, Socioeconomic Factors, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Child, Nepal, Female, Male, Young Adult, Social Discrimination