Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.
Skip to main content

Background:The adequacy of the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) antimicrobial guidelines for the treatment of suspected severe bacterial infections is dependent on a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We describe trends in etiologies and susceptibility patterns of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized children in Malawi. Methods:We determined the change in population-based incidence of BSI in children admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi (1998-2017). AMR profiles were assessed by the disc diffusion method and trends over time were evaluated. Results:A total 89,643 pediatric blood cultures were performed, and 10,621 pathogens were included in the analysis. Estimated minimum incidence rates of BSI for those ≤5 years of age fell from a peak of 11.4 per 1,000 persons in 2002 to 3.4 per 1,000 persons in 2017. Over two decades, resistance of Gram-negative pathogens to all empiric first-line antimicrobials (ampicillin/penicillin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone) among children ≤5 years increased from 3.4% to 30.2% (p<0.001). Among those ≤60 days, AMR to all first-line antimicrobials increased from 7.0% to 67.7% (p<0.001). Among children ≤5 years, Klebsiella spp. resistance to all first-line antimicrobial regimens increased from 5.9% to 93.7% (p<0.001). Conclusions:The incidence of BSI among hospitalized children has decreased substantially over the last 20 years, although gains have been offset by increases in Gram-negative pathogens resistant to all empiric first-line antimicrobials. There is an urgent need to address the broader challenge of adapting IMCI guidelines to the local setting in the face of rapidly expanding AMR in childhood BSI.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciy834

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Publication Date

10/2018

Addresses

Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi.