The kdr pyrethroid resistance gene in Anopheles gambiae: tests of non-pyrethroid insecticides and a new detection method for the gene.
Fanello C., Kolaczinski JH., Conway DJ., Carnevale P., Curtis CF.
The organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and the carbamate carbosulfan were evaluated in comparison to the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin and the 'near-pyrethroid' etofenprox against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex spp. in an experimental hut station located in central Côte d'Ivoire. Bednets were impregnated with the above mentioned compounds and randomly allocated to the huts. On 40 consecutive mornings, after sleepers had occupied the huts overnight, mosquitoes were collected from the huts, identified and scored as live or dead (including delayed mortality). An. gambiae s.l. that had been collected were tested for the presence of the kdr allele in heterozygous or homozygous form. Both non-pyrethroid treatments caused very high mortality, whereas mortality with alpha-cypermethrin and etofenprox generally did not differ from the levels observed with untreated control nets in this experiment. The nets had holes cut in them and there was considerable bloodfeeding on the sleepers, which was only significantly reduced for An. gambiae by carbosulfan and alpha-cypermethrin. PCR genotyping suggested that there was selection for the kdr resistance allele by the pyrethroid treated nets. Organophosphates and carbamates may therefore present an alternative to be used on bednets especially in areas of pyrethroid resistance, but the safety of these insecticides will have to be carefully considered.